0.829
IF
20
MNiSW
166.26
ICV
Online first
RESEARCH PAPER
 
CC BY-NC-ND 3.0
 
 

New laws to reduce tobacco smoking changed attitudes to the problem, but not the percentage of smokers

 
1
Department of Prevention of Environmental Hazards and Allergology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
KEYWORDS:
ABSTRACT:
Introduction:
The epidemic of tobacco smoking remains one of the most important challenges in public health. It is associated with premature death. For this reason, the Act of 9 November 1995 on the Protection of Public Health against the Effects of Use of Tobacco and Tobacco Products, as amended on 15 November 2010, implemented significant additional restrictions on smoking in public places.

Objective:
The objective of this study is evaluation of the impact of smoking regulations on social behaviour and attitude to the legal forms of tobacco control, due to the new smoke-free policy.

Material and Methods:
A secondary statistical analysis of third party data was used in the study. The material was obtained from the Public Opinion Research Centre. Polls are conducted among representative samples of about 1,000 adult inhabitants of Poland. The studies on cigarette smoking were carried out in 3 editions (2010, 2011, 2012).

Results:
The collected data on tobacco smoking before and after implementation of the Act show that the number of smokers remained at a comparable level – about 30% (p=0.891). Between 2010–2012, an increase was observed in the percentage of people supporting the smoking ban in public places. The total number of people who definitely or rather supported the smoking ban increased from 75.6% in 2010 to 85.0% in 2012 (p<0.001).

Conclusions:
The restrictive smoking ban in public places implemented in 2010 did not have an impact on the number of smokers in the studied time interval, although an increase in the number of people supporting the smoking ban in public places was observed.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Dagmara Opoczyńska-Świeżewska   
Department of Prevention of Environmental Hazards and Allergology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
 
REFERENCES (31):
1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. A report of the Surgeon General: How tobacco smoke causes disease: What it means to you. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2010.
2. Gandini S, Botteri E, Iodice S, et al. Tobacco smoking and cancer: A meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 2008; 122: 155–164.
3. Giovino GA, Mirza SA, Samet JM, et. al. Tobacco use in 3 billion individuals from 16 countries: an analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional household surveys. Lancet. 2012; 380: 668–679.
4. WHO. Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks.: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GlobalHealthRisks_report_full.pdf (accessed August 1, 2015).
5. World Health Organization. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2011 – Warning about the dangers of tobacco. Geneva: WHO; 2011.
6. Zatoński W, Przewoźniak K, Sulkowska U, West R, Wojtyła A. Tobacco smoking in countries of the European Union. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012; 19(2): 181–192.
  WWW
7. Jha P. The 21st century bene fits of smoking cessation in Europe. Eur J Epidemiol. DOI 10.1007/s10654–013–9835–6.
8. Kaleta D, Kozieł A, Miśkiewicz P. Globalne badanie dotyczące używania tytoniu przez osoby dorosłe (Global Adult Tobacco Survey – GATS) w Polsce – cel i dotychczasowe doświadczenia. Med Pr. 2009; 60(3): 197–200.
9. Kaleta D, Kamowiec-Dąbrowska T, Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk E, Fronczak A. Determinants of heavy smoking: results from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey In Poland (2009–2010). Int J Occup Environ Health. 2012; 25(1): 66–79.
10. Kaleta D, Polańska K, Wojtysiak P, et al. Effective protection from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Poland: the World Health Organization perspective. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2010; 23(2): 123–131.
11. http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/effects_cig_smoking/index.htm (accessed August 1, 2015).
12. Pierzchała W, Barczyk A, Górecka D, Śliwiński P, Zieliński J. Zalecenia Polskiego Towarzystwa Chorób Płuc rozpoznawania i leczenia przewlekłej obturacyjnej choroby płuc (POChP). Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2010; 78(5): 318–347.
13. Chiosi JJ, Andes L, Asma S, Palipudi K, McAfee T. Warning about the harms of tobacco use in 22 countries: findings from a cross-sectional household survey. Tob Control 2015; 0:1–9. (doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014–05204).
14. Ministerstwo Zdrowia. Globalny Sondaż dotyczący Używania Tytoniu przez Osoby Dorosłe (GATS). Polska 2009–2010. Warszawa: Ministerstwo Zdrowia; 2010.
15. Włodarczyk A, Raciborski F, Opoczyńska D, Samoliński B, GATS PWG. Daily tobacco smoking patterns in rural and urban areas of Poland – the results of the GATS study. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2013; 20(3): 588–594.
  WWW
16. Commission Staff Working Document. Report on the implementation of the Council Recommendation of 30 November 2009 on Smoke-free Environments (2009/C 296/02). Brussels: European Commission; 2013.
17. Ustawa z dnia 9 listopada 1995 r. o ochronie zdrowia przed następstwami używania tytoniu i wyrobów tytoniowych (Dz.U. 1996 nr 10 poz. 55, z pozn. zm.).
18. Uchwała Nr 90/2007 Rady Ministrów z dnia 15 maja 2007 r. w sprawie Narodowego Programu Zdrowia na lata 2007 – 2015.
19. Stankiewicz-Choroszucha B, Wawrzyniak Z, Lipiec A, Piekarska B, Kapalczynski W, Samoliński B. Consequences of smoke inhalation in the ‘Epidemiology of Allergic Diseases in Poland’ project (ECAP). Ann Agr Env Med. 2011; 18(2): 420–428.
  WWW
20. Smith AK, Ayanian JZ, Covinsky KE, et al. Conducting High-Value Secondary Dataset Analysis: An Introductory Guide and Resources. J Gen Intern Med. 2011; 26(8): 920–929.
21. Cheng HG, Phillips MR. Secondary analysis of existing data: opportunities and implementation. Shanghai Arch Psychiatry. 2014; 26(6): 371–375.
22. http://wobasz-projekt.pl/index.php/badanie-wobasz-ii/opis-badania (accessed April 28, 2015).
23. Polakowska M, Piotrowski W, Tykarski A, et al. Nałóg palenia tytoniu w populacji polskiej. Wyniki programu WOBASZ. Kardiol Pol. 2005; 63(4):1–9.
24. Główny Urząd Statystyczny. Stan Zdrowia Ludności Polski w 2009 r. Warszawa; 2011.
25. Kaleta D, Usidame B, Biliński P, et al. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in Poland 2009–2010 – study strengths, limitations and lessons learned. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012; 19(4): 717–722.
  WWW
26. TNS Polska dla Głównego Inspektoratu Sanitarnego. Raport z ogólnopolskiego badania ankietowego na temat postaw wobec palenia tytoniu. Warszawa; 2013.
27. Centrum Badania Opinii Społecznej (CBOS). Komunikat z badań: Postawy wobec palenia papierosów. BS/36/2012. Warszawa; 2010.
28. Centrum Badania Opinii Społecznej (CBOS). Komunikat z badań: Postawy wobec palenia papierosów. BS/70/2011. Warszawa; 2011.
29. Centrum Badania Opinii Publicznej (CBOS). Komunikat z badań: Postawy wobec palenia papierosów. BS/107/2012. Warszawa; 2012.
30. Jassem J, Przewoźniak K, Zatoński W. Tobacco control in Poland—successes and challenges. Transl Lung Cancer Res 2014; 3(5): 280–285.
31. Fong GT, Hyland A, Borland R, et al. Reductions in tobacco smoke pollution and increases in support for smoke-free public places following the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free workplace legislation in the Republic of Ireland: findings from the ITC Ireland/UK Survey. Tob Control. 2006; 15(3): iii51–iii58.
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966