RESEARCH PAPER
Medical and psychosocial factors conditioning development of stress urinary incontinence (SUI)
 
More details
Hide details
1
Independent Practical Obstetric Skills Unit, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Health Informatics and Statistics, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland; Faculty of Pedagogy and Psychology, University of Economics and Innovation, Lublin, Poland
 
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2013;20(1):135–139
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Introduction: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is the most frequent type of urinary incontinence among adult women. Objective: The objective of the study was evaluation of the effect of environmental, systemic and obstetrical factors on the development of stress urinary incontinence, and diagnosing and determination of areas in which changes could be made. Material and method: The study covered 313 females aged 30-75 living in the Lublin Region. The respondents were divided into two groups according to the clinical diagnosis, occurrence of symptoms of SUI or lack thereof: Group I – women with SUI symptoms (119), Group II – women without SUI (194). A diagnostic survey was conducted with the use of a self-designed research instrument based on the Gaudenz questionnaire, data from relevant literature and the ‘competent judges’ test. The following statistical tests were used to compare two structure indicators (fraction, frequency); chi-square test and t-Student test. Statistical analysis was performed by means of STATISTICA 9 (StatSoft) software. Results and conclusions: Statistically significant differences were found between the group of patients with SUI and the control group, with respect to the number of deliveries and their duration. The study showed that there is a statistically higher probability of the development of SUI in the case of surgical delivery, or natural childbirth of a baby with a birth weight of 4000 g or more. The study showed that hard physical work and past gynaecological surgeries are risk factors of urinary incontinence. Barriers of a psychosocial nature were also found (feeling of shame and embarrassment accompanying disclosure of the SUI), which minimized the respondents’ participation in urinary incontinence prophylactic actions.
 
REFERENCES (34)
1.
Reynolds WS, Dmochowski RR, Penson DF. Epidemiology of stress urinary incontinence in women. Curr Urol Rep. 2011; 12(5): 370-376.
 
2.
Zhu L, Lang J, Liu C, Han S, Huang J, Li X. The epidemiological study of women with urinary incontinence and risk factors for stress urinary incontinence in China. Menopause 2009; 16(4): 831-836.
 
3.
Seim A, Eriksen BC, Hunskaar S. A study of female urinary incontinence in general practice. Demography, medical history, and clinical findings. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1996; 30: 465-471.
 
4.
Stothers L, Friedman B. Risk factors for the development of stress urinary incontinence in women. Curr Urol Rep. 2011; 12(5): 363-369.
 
5.
Holroyd-Leduc JM, Tannenbaum C, Thorpe KE, Straus SE. What type of urinary incontinence does this woman have? http://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/pubmed/18364487 JAMA 2008; 26, 299(12): 1446-1456.
 
6.
Mallett VT. Female urinary incontinence: what the epidemiologic data tell us. Int J Fertil Womens Med. 2005; 50(1): 12-17.
 
7.
Bø K. Risk factors for development and recurrence of urinary incontinence. Curr. Opin. Urol. 1997;7(4):193-196.
 
8.
Brown JS, Seeley DG, Fong J, Black DM, Ensrud KE, Grady D. Urinary incontinence in older women: who is at risk? Obstet Gynecol 1996; 87: 715-721.
 
9.
Persson J, Wolner-Hanssen P, Rydhstroem H. Obstetric risk Factors for stress urinary incontinence: a population-based study. Obstet Gynecol 2000; 3: 440-445.
 
10.
Hsieh CH, Chang WC, Lin TY, Su TH, Li YT, Kuo TC, Lee MC, Lee MS, Chang ST. Long-term effect of hysterectomy on urinary incontinence in Taiwan. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 50(3): 326-330.
 
11.
Quinn SD, Domoney C. The effects of hormones on urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women. Climacteric. 2009; 12(2): 106-113.
 
12.
Tomaszewski J, Adamiak A, Skorupski P, Rzeski W, Rechberger T. Effect of 17 beta-estradiol and phytoestrogen daidzein on the proliferation of pubocervical fascia and skin fibroblasts derived from women suffering from stress urinary incontinence. Ginekol Pol. 2003; 74(10): 1410-1414.
 
13.
Lim JL. Post-partum voiding dysfunction and urinary retention. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2010; 50(6): 502-505.
 
14.
Groutz A, Helpman L, Gold R, Pauzner D, Lessing JB, Gordon D. First vaginal delivery at an older age: Does it carry an extra risk for the development of stress urinary incontinence? Neurourol Urodyn. 2007; 26(6): 779-782.
 
15.
Bielicki K, Cisło M, Kaim K, Szpyrko A, Świdrak W. Ocena nietrzymania moczu u kobiet na podstawie badania ginekologicznego i opracowanej ankiety. In: Materiały Jubileuszowego sympozium 50-lecia I Katedry i Kliniki Położnictwa i I Katedry i Kliniki Ginekologii 1946-1996. Wrocław 1996, p.299-302.
 
16.
Thom DH, van den Eeden SK, Brown JS. Evaluation of parturition and other reproductive variables as risk factors for urinary incontinence in later life. Obstet Gynecol 1997; 90: 983-989.
 
17.
Barber MD, Kleeman S, Karram MM, Paraiso MF, Ellerkmann M, Vasavada S, Walters MD: Risk factors associated with failure 1 year after retropubic or transobturator midurethral slings. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008; 199(6): 666-667.
 
18.
Jóźwik M, Jóźwik M. Wpływ porodu drogami natury na czynność dolnego odcinka dróg moczowych oraz unerwienie dna miednicy – przegląd obecnego stanu wiedzy. Nowa Medycyna. Urologia V 2000; 5: 44-48.
 
19.
Rortveit G, Daltveit AK, Hannestad YS, Hunskaar S. Urinary incontinence after vaginal delivery or cesarean section. N Engl J Med. 2003; 6, 348(10): 900-907.
 
20.
Wilson PD, Herbison RM, Herbison GP. Obstetric practice and the prevalence of urinary incontinence three months after delivery. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1996; 103: 154-161.
 
21.
Devine JB, Ostergard DR, Noblett KL. Odległe powikłania drugiego okresu porodu. Ginekologia po Dyplomie 2000; 5: 91-96.
 
22.
Hay-Smith J, Mørkved S, Fairbrother KA, Herbison GP. Pelvic floor muscle training for prevention and treatment of urinary and faecal incontinence in antenatal and postnatal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008; 8 (4): CD007471.
 
23.
Meyer S, Hohlfeld R, Achtari C, Russolo A, De Grandi P. Birth trauma: short and long term effects of forceps delivery compared with spontaneous delivery on various pelvic floor parameters. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2000; 107: 1360-1365.
 
24.
Hay-Smith J, Herbison P, Mørkved S. Physical therapies for prevention of urinary and faecal incontinence in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002; (2): CD003191.
 
25.
Gaudenz R. Der Inkontinenz-Fragebogen mit dem neuen Urge-Score und Stress-Score. Geburtshilfe-Frauenheilk 1979; 39: 784-792.
 
26.
Farrell SA, Allen VM, Baskett TF. Parturition and urinary incontinence in primiparas. Obstet Gynaecol 2001; 97: 350-356.
 
27.
Krue S, Jensen H, Agger AO, Rasmussen KL. The influence of infant birth weight on post partum stress incontinence in obese women. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 1997;259(3): 143-5.
 
28.
Groutz A, Levin I, Gold R, Pauzner D, Lessing JB, Gordon D. Protracted postpartum urinary retention: the importance of early diagnosis and timely intervention. Neurourol Urodyn. 2011; 30(1): 83-86.
 
29.
Chaliha C, Kalia V, Stanton SL, Monga A, Sultan AH. Antenatal prediction of postpartum urinary and fecal incontinence. Obstet Gynecol. 1999; 94: 689-694.
 
30.
Simeonova Z, Milsom I, Kullendorff A-M, Molander U, Bengtsson C. The prevalence of urinary incontinence and its influence on the quality of life in women from an urban Swedish population. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1999; 78: 546-551.
 
31.
Bidmead J, Cardozo L, McLellan A, Khullar V, Kelleher C. A comparison of the objective and subjective outcomes of colposuspension for stress incontinence in women. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2001; 108: 408-413.
 
32.
Bump RC, McClish DK. Cigarette smoking and pure genuine stress incontinence of urine: a comparison of risk factors and determinants between smokers and nonsmokers. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994; 170: 579-582.
 
33.
Black N, Griffiths JM, Pope C, Stanley J, Bowling A, Abel PD. Sociodemographic and symptomatic characteristics of women undergoing stress incontinence surgery in the UK. Br J Urol. 1996; 78: 847-855.
 
34.
Barnick CGW, Cardozo LD. Denervation and re-innervation of the urethral sphincter in the etiology of genuine stress incontinence: An electromyographic study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1993; 100: 750-753.
 
eISSN:1898-2263
ISSN:1232-1966