Changes in smoking prevalence and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among adults in Łódź, Poland

Adam Fronczak 1,  
Department of Biopharmacy, Medical University, Łódź, Poland
Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland
Department of Preventive Medicine, Medical University, Łódź, Poland
Department of Nutrition in Digestive Tract Diseases, Medical University, Łódź, Poland
Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
Department of Mother and Child Health, University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland; Department of Hygiene, Chair of Social Medicine, University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland
Ann Agric Environ Med 2012;19(4):754–761
Comprehensive monitoring informs the stakeholders about the level of tobacco epidemic and helps to allocate tobacco control resources where they are most needed and will be most effective. The aim of the paper was to evaluate the prevalence of daily cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among adult citizens of Łódz area in Poland between year 2001 and 2010 by selected characteristics. Material and methods. For the purpose of the presented analysis, data were used from 3 cross-sectional studies on randomly-selected 3,874 adults from the Łódź area, conducted in 2001, 2005 and 2010. Changes in the rates between the surveys were assessed by odds ratio. Results. Smoking prevalence remained stable but high between 2001-2010. There was an inverse relationship between smoking prevalence and educational level for both genders (p for trend ≤0.01) in each survey. For men in all surveys, the prevalence of current daily tobacco smoking decreased with increased income (p for trend ≤0.01), and also for women in the 2009-2010 survey (p for trend =0.03). The statistically significant changes for the comparison of 2001 and 2005 surveys were observed for exposure to ETS (p<0.001). Percentages of men and women who declared exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at least one hour per day decreased significantly. Furthermore, the proportion of people who declared exposure to ETS decreased with the increasing age of participants (p for trend ≤0.005), level of education for men in both surveys, and for women in the 2001 survey (p for trend ≤0.003), and income for both men and women in the 2001 survey (p for trend <0.001). Conclusion. Established, long-term tobacco surveillance systems of smoking and ETS exposure, based on nationally and locally representative samples, are necessary in Poland.