Bone mineral density and osteoporosis in rural and urban women. Epidemiological study of the Lublin region (Eastern Poland).

Ann Agric Environ Med 2001;8(2):221–226
The aim of this study was determination of the values of bone mineral density (BMD L2-L4) and evaluation of occurrence of osteoporosis (according to densitometric criteria valid until 2000) among normal women living in rural and urban environments (especially postmenopausal) in comparison to other populations. Subjects of the study were 503 normal women aged 30-79 (mean 49.5 years), all residents of Lublin Region (eastern Poland). Analysed population was divided into two subgroups: urban (n=282, 56%) and rural (n=221, 44%). 65 (12.9%) women working as farmers, 107 (21.3%) were retired; other occupations were performed by 325 (64.6%) women. The lumbar spine (L2-L4) of all subjects was examined in anterior-posterior position using the dual X-ray absorptiometry--DEXA (LUNAR Corp.) at the Densitometric Laboratory of the Institute of Agricultural Medicine in Lublin from November 1999-June 2000. No statistically significant differences were observed in mean values of BMD between urban and rural populations, nor between farmers and other occupations. Mean values of BMD in every age range were similar to the populations of North America and Northern Europe. The prevalence rates of osteoporosis according to WHO criteria in the entire analysed population were calculated as 6.9%, and osteopenia as 25.4%. The prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia increased with advancing age. In women younger than 45 years osteoporosis was not observed, and the prevalence of osteopenia was 12.6%. In women between 45-55 years the prevalence of osteoporosis was 5.7 % and of osteopenia 25.6%. In women older than 55 years of age osteoporosis was observed in 18.5% and osteopenia in 40.7%.