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γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) level as an overall survival risk factor in breast cancer

Anna Brzozowska 1, 2  ,  
Dariusz Duma 4,  
Janusz Solski 4,  
Department of Oncology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, St. John’s Cancer Centre, Lublin, Poland
Department of Anatomy, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
Department of Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
The γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) plays important role in the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of GABA in breast cancer, in relation to clinical and epidemiological data.

Material and Methods:
The study was conducted on 89 patients with breast cancer in stage I-II. GABA level was assessed using spectrofluorometric method in tumour homogenates. Immunoexpression of E-cadherin was evaluated histologically on paraffin fixed specimens. Overall and disease-free survival was assessed for a 15-year interval period.

Median overall survival was significantly longer (127.2 months) in patients with a high level of GABA (>89.3 μg/1), compared with a group with a low level of the amino acid (106.4 months). Disease-free survival was insignificantly different – 99 and 109 months, respectively. A significantly longer overall survival (131.2 months) was seen among patients with a high level of GABA and positive E-cadherin immunoexpression, compared with a group characterized by a low level of GABA and lack of E-cadherin immunorectivity (98.1 months). The co-existence of negative immunoexpression of E-cadherin and low GABA concentration resulted in a six-fold increase in the risk of death (HR=6.03).

GABA has a significant prognostic value in breast cancer. Co-existence of a low level of GABA and loss of E-cadherin immune-expression seems to be a new, independent, and negative prognostic marker of the neoplasm.

Anna Brzozowska   
Department of Oncology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland
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